• Allgemeines
  • Funktionsschema
  • Anwendungen
  • Veröffentlichungen
  • Datenblatt



Das HFR 500 basiert auf dem gleichen Messprinzip wie konventionelle FID’s ist aber durch eine optimierte Messzelle und kürzeste Gaslaufzeiten und mit einer T90 Zeit von ≤7ms um ein Vielfaches schneller. Die patentierte Messtechnik erlaubt die Messung von Gesamt HC im Rohgas auch bei hohen Temperaturen und variierenden Abgasgegendrücken direkt im Zylinder oder hinter dem Auslassventil. RDE Anwendungen sind optional möglich.



The flame ionisation detector (FID) is the automotive emissions industry standard method of measuring hydrocarbon (HC) concentration.

The sample gas is introduced into a hydrogen flame inside the FID. Any hydrocarbons in the sample will produce ions when they are burnt. Ions are detected using a metal collector which is biased with a high DC voltage. The current across this collector is thus proportional to the rate of ionisation which in turn depends upon the concentration of HC in the sample gas.

The ionisation process is very rapid, so the slow time response of conventional FIDs is mainly due to sample handling. A typical slow analyser might have a response time of 1-2 seconds.

The Cambustion HFR fast response FID analyzers use conventional detection principles and a unique patented sampling system to give millisecond response times.

The Cambustion fast FID consists of a main control unit (MCU) and two remote sampling heads (which house the FIDs). The dual channel nature of the instrument enables simultaneous real-time measurement in two locations allowing, for example, evaluation of catalyst performance.



Title Data type Download File Size Last Updated
Use of the HFR500 fast FID for cold start gasoline calibration Application note  Application of HFR500 to cold start gasoline calibration.pdf 4.5 MB 14-Jun-2011
Sampling spark plug configuration for in cylinder sampling Diagram  cams-gradient fill small.jpg 27.21 KB 19-Aug-2009
Cold start PFI gasoline (animation) Sample data  Cold start FID animation.exe 986.59 KB 15-Apr-2010
Cold start gasoline HC, CO and CO2 Sample data  coldstartcoco2andhc.pdf 166.03 KB 18-Aug-2009
Exhaust valve leakage Sample data  exhaustleak.pdf 49.8 KB 19-Aug-2009
FTP cycle 100-205s - catalyst light off and HC fluctuation smoothing. Sample data  ftp 100-205 secs (fid).pdf 152.33 KB 24-Feb-2015
FTP cycle 200-305s - lambda cycling shown by fast HC Sample data  ftp 200-305 secs (fid).pdf 114.96 KB 24-Feb-2015
FTP cycle 300-405s - effect of decel fuel shut off and acceleration transients on HC Sample data  ftp 300-405 secs (fid).pdf 91.67 KB 24-Feb-2015
FTP cycle 400-505s - HC emissions Sample data  ftp 400-505 secs (fid).pdf 96.44 KB 24-Feb-2015
FTP cycle start - 105s - HC emissions Sample data  ftp-0-105s(fid).pdf 118.82 KB 19-Aug-2009
Intake port fuel puddle dynamics Sample data  fuel puddle.pdf 67.27 KB 19-Aug-2009
In cylinder sampling of GDI engine Sample data  GDI FID animation.exe 442.96 KB 29-Apr-2010
FTP cycle over 505s - HC emissions Sample data  hc catalyst explanation.pdf 114.81 KB 19-Aug-2009
Decel fuel spiking causing catalyst damage Sample data  hc decel fuel shutoff.pdf 77.62 KB 19-Aug-2009
Cold start PFI gasoline HC emissions Application note  hfr01v02 si cold start.pdf 77.14 KB 18-Aug-2009
High rpm fuelling control Application note  hfr02v01 high rpm.pdf 149.57 KB 19-Aug-2009
HC emissions from a diesel-engined passenger vehicle Application note  HFR05v01 Diesel.pdf 288.67 KB 24-Feb-2015
Suitability of HFR500 for ethanol measurements Application note  hfr06v01 ethanol.pdf 13.2 KB 19-Aug-2009
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) HC emissions Application note  HFR07v01 GDI HC emissions.pdf 128.38 KB 24-Feb-2015
Intake manifold measurement of "found fuel"    HFR08v01 intake sampling.pdf 547.89 KB 02-Feb-2015
Cycle-by-cycle AFR measurement of a cold start using an NDIR500 and HFR500. Application note  NDIR03v02 AFR measurement.pdf 442.5 KB 24-Feb-2015
Two stroke short circuiting Sample data  two-stroke exhaust [hc].pdf 55.77 KB 19-Aug-2009



Title Author Date Download
Experimental comparison of combustion and emission characteristics between a market gasoline and its surrogate Stefania Esposito Institute for Combustion Engines Liming Cai Institute for Combustion Technology Marco Günther Institute for Combustion Engines Heinz Pitsch Institute for Combustion Technology Stefan Pischinge Institute for Combustion Engines Combustion and Flame 21-Jan-2020
Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Space- and Species-Resolved Measurements of Engine-Out Emissions from a Single-Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Stefania Esposito VKA, RWTH Aachen University Peter Mauermann VKA, RWTH Aachen University Bastian Lehrheuer VKA, RWTH Aachen University Marco Günther VKA, RWTH Aachen University Stefan Pischinger VKA, RWTH Aachen University SAE Technical Paper 02-Apr-2019
Study on pollutants formation under knocking combustion conditions using an optical single cylinder SI research engine Apostolos Karvountzis-Kontakiotis Brunel University, City University London Hassan Vafamehra Brunel University Alasdair Cairns University of Nottingham Mark Peckham Cambustion Ltd Energy Volume 158, 1 September 2018, Pages 899-910 01-Jun-2018
High spatio-temporal resolution pollutant measurements of on-board vehicle emissions using ultra-fast response gas analyzers Martin Irwin Cambustion Ltd Harry Bradley Cambustion Ltd Matthew Duckhouse Cambustion Ltd Matthew Hammond Cambustion Ltd Mark S. Peckham Cambustion Ltd Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3559–3567, 2018 01-Jun-2018
Optimal Cold-Start Control of a Gasoline Engine Raffael Hedinger ETH Zurich Philipp Elbert ETH Zurich Christopher Onder ETH Zurich Energies 2017, 10(10), 1548; 01-Oct-2017
RAPIDLY PULSED REDUCTANTS FOR DIESEL NOX REDUCTION WITH LEAN NOX TRAPS: COMPARISON OF ALKANES AND ALKENES AS THE REDUCING AGENT Amin Reihani University of Michigan Brent Patterson University of Michigan John Hoard University of Michigan Galen B. Fisher University of Michigan Joseph R. Theis Ford Motor Company Christine K. Lambert Ford Motor Company ICEF2016 Oct 9-12, Greenville, SC, USA 01-Oct-2017
Rapidly Pulsed Reductants for Diesel NOx Reduction With Lean NOx Traps: Comparison of Alkanes and Alkenes as the Reducing Agent Amin Reihani University of Michigan Brent Patterson University of Michigan John Hoard University of Michigan Galen B. Fisher University of Michigan Joseph R. Theis Ford Motor Company Christine K. Lambert Ford Motor Company J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(10), 102805 (Apr 25, 2017) 01-May-2017
Improving cold start, combustion and emission characteristics of a lean burn spark ignition natural gas engine with multi-point hydrogen injection Lei Zhu Shanghai Jiao Tong University Z.Y. He Shanghai Jiao Tong University Zhen Xu Shanghai Jiao Tong University Zhan Gao Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ang Li Shanghai Jiao Tong University Zhen Huang Shanghai Jiao Tong University Applied Thermal Engineering Available online 8 April 2017 01-Apr-2017
Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods Chad Koci Caterpillar Inc Adam Dempsey Caterpillar Inc Jeffery Nudd Caterpillar Inc Bradley Knier Caterpillar Inc SAE 2017-01-0703 01-Mar-2017
Comparative Analysis of a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine Using Gasoline and Diesel Fuels Sampad Mukhopadhyay Wayne State University Sunil Srinivas Badavath Wayne State University Naeim Henein Wayne State University SAE 2017-01-0699 01-Mar-2017
Rapidly Pulsed Reductants for Diesel NOx Reduction With Lean NOx Traps: Comparison of Alkanes and Alkenes as the Reducing Agent Amin Reihani University of Michigan Brent Patterson University of Michigan John Hoard University of Michigan Galen B. Fisher University of Michigan Joseph R. Theis Ford Motor Company Christine K. Lambert Ford Motor Company Evgeny Smirnov Ford Forschungszentrum Dirk Roemer Ford Forschungszentrum ASME 2016 Internal Combustion Engine Fall Technical Conference 01-Oct-2016
Investigations on the Pollutant Emissions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engines During Cold-Start Juan Felipe Rodríguez MIT Personal PhD Thesis 01-Jun-2016
Experimental and numerical investigations of the geometry influence on gas accumulation using a V-shaped forest model Bruno Coudour Univ. Poitiers, Univ. Orléans Khaled Chetehouna Univ. Orléans Boris Conan Univ. Orléans, École Centrale de Nantes Sandrine Aubrun Univ. Orléans Ahmed Kaiss Aix Marseille Université Jean-Pierre Garo Univ. Poitiers Atmospheric Environment Volume 141, September 2016, Pages 67–79 01-Jun-2016
Ion current signal and characteristics of ethanol/gasoline dual fuel HCCI combustion Yintong Liu Tongji University Liguang Li Tongji University Junyu Ye Tongji University Jun Deng Tongji University Zhijun Wu Tongji University Fuel Volume 166, 15 February 2016, Pages 42–50 01-Feb-2016
Investigation of Cold Starting and Combustion Mode Switching as Methods to Improve Low Load RCCI Operation Reed Hanson University of Wisconsin-Madison Rolf Reitz University of Wisconsin-Madison ASME 2015 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference 01-Nov-2015
Fuel adjustment to achieve a smooth net indicated mean effective pressure during mode switching from homogeneous charge compression ignition to conventional diesel compression ignition in a transient hydrocarbon emissions study Lei Shi Shanghai Jiao Tong University Youcheng Sun Shanghai Jiao Tong University Kangyao Deng Shanghai Jiao Tong University Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering January 12, 2016 01-Nov-2015
Transient “Single-Fuel” RCCI Operation With Customized Pistons in a Light Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine Christopher W. Gross University of Wisconsin – Madison Rolf D. Reitz University of Wisconsin – Madison ASME 2015 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference 01-Nov-2015
Spark ignition of a turbulent shear-less fuel–air mixing layer Samer F. Ahmed Qatar University Epaminondas Mastorakos University of Cambridge Fuel Volume 164, 15 January 2016, Pages 297–304 01-Oct-2015
Contribution of coherent structures to momentum and concentration fluxes over a flat vegetation canopy modelled in a wind tunnel Boris Conan, Sandrine Aubrun, Bruno Coudour, Khaled Chetehouna, Jean-Pierre Garo Atmospheric Environment Volume 107, April 2015, Pages 329–341 01-Apr-2015
Fractionation of engine exhaust hydrocarbons using flame ionization detection with variable temperature sample conditioner William F Northrop, Aaron S Avenido International Journal of Engine Research January 13, 2015 1468087414565402 01-Jan-2015
An Experimental Investigation of Combustion Chamber Design Parameters for Hot Surface Ignition Dan Chown, Charles Habbaky and James S. Wallace ASME 2014 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference 01-Oct-2014
Experimental investigation of the evaporation characteristics of the fuel in a direct-injection spark ignition engine subjected to a direct-start process Maoyu Xiao, Lei Shi, Kangyao Deng Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering September 30, 2014 09544070145 01-Sep-2014
On Combustion in the CNG - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine FREDRIK KÖNIGSSON Doctoral Thesis 01-Aug-2014
Low temperature oscillations of DME combustion in a jet-stirred reactor Klaus-Dieter Stoehr, Norbert Peters, Joachim Beeckmann Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 01-Jul-2014
Investigation of Combustion Phasing Control Strategy During Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Multicylinder Engine Load Transitions Yifeng Wu, Reed Hanson and Rolf D. Reitz J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 136(9), 091511 (Apr 21, 2014) 01-Apr-2014
Independent fuel injection strategy based on the initial piston positions for HEV engine quick start Tao Li, Kangyao Deng,Haiyong Peng,Chongmin Wu Fuel Volume 117, Part A, 30 January 2014, Pages 733–741 01-Jan-2014
Effect of fuel metering on combustion and emissions of a PFI gasoline engine during fast startup under an HEV-like mode S Yu, L Li International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol 15, No5, pp. 699-708 01-Sep-2013
Effects of injection timing and fuel pulse width on mixture preparation and hydrocarbon emissions of the first cranking cycle under different initial piston positions Tao Li, Kangyao Deng, Chongmin Wu Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering vol. 227 no. 5 723-734 01-May-2013
Effect of Partial-Heating of the Intake Port on the Mixture Preparation and Combustion of the First Cranking Cycle during the Cold-Start stage of Port Fuel Injection Engine Tao Li, Kangyao, Haiyong Peng, Chongmin Wu Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, in press 01-Mar-2013
Demonstration of Model-Based, Off-Line Performance Analysis on a Gas Turbine Air Compressor Ashley P. Wiese, Matthew J. Blom, Michael J. Brear, and Chris Manzie, Anthony Kitchener J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power -- February 2013 -- Volume 135, Issue 2, 022301 01-Jan-2013
Characterisation of flame development with ethanol, butanol, iso-octane, gasoline and methane in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine P.G. Aleiferis, J. Serras-Pereira,D. Richardson Fuel, in press 01-Jan-2013
Effects of operating parameters on mode transition between low temperature combustion and conventional combustion in a light duty diesel engine S Han, C Bae, SB Choi International Journal of Engine Research August 8, 2012 1468087412454249 01-Aug-2012
Misfire Detection and Re-ignition Control by Ion Current Signal Feedback during Cold Start in Two-stage Direct-Injection Engines Qianwang Fan, Jiang Bian, Haifeng Lu, Sunyu Tong and Liguang Li International Journal of Engine Research published online 28 August 2012 01-Aug-2012
Experimental evaluation of engine control strategy on the time resolved THC and nano-particle emission characteristics of liquid phase LPG direct injection (LPG-DI) engine during the cold start Juwon Kim, Kwanhee Choi, Cha-Lee Myung, Simsoo Park Fuel Processing Technology 01-Aug-2012
A Physics-Based Integrated Model of a Spark Ignition Engine and a Three-Way Catalyst D. I. Andrianov, M. J. Brear & C. Manzie Combustion Science and Technology Volume 184, Issue 9, 2012 01-Aug-2012
Control-oriented modeling of a three-way catalytic converter with observation of the relative oxygen level profile Pascal Kiwitz, Christopher Onder, Lino Guzzella Journal of Process Control Volume 22, Issue 6, July 2012, Pages 984–994 01-May-2012
Dynamics of bluff-body stabilised flames subjected to equivalence ratio oscillations R. Balachandran, A.P. Dowling, E. Mastorakos European Combustion Meeting 2011 01-Nov-2011
Transient Combustion and Hydrocarbon Emission Characteristics of a Port-Fuel-Injected Engine Jian Hao Zhou, Yin Nan Yuan, Xian Qiang Liu, Jia Yi Du Advanced Materials Research (Volumes 383 - 390), Manufacturing Science and Technology, p5274-5279 01-Nov-2011
Wind tunnel measurements of pollutant turbulent fluxes in urban intersections Matteo Carpentieri, Paul Hayden, Alan G. Robins Atmospheric Environment (article in press) 01-Oct-2011
Development of Di-Air - A New Diesel deNOx System by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants Yuki Bisaiji, Kohei Yoshida, Mikio Inoue, Kazuhiro Umemoto, Takao Fukuma SAE 2011-01-2089 01-Aug-2011
Analysis of Transient HC, CO, NOx and CO2 Emissions from a GDI Engine using Fast Response Gas Analyzers Mark Peckham, Alex Finch, Bruce Campbell SAE 2011-01-1227 01-Apr-2011
Exhaust Gas Analysis of a Vortex Oxidizer Injection Hybrid Rocket Motor David Myre, Patrick Caton, James Cowart, Charles Jones 46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Nashville, TN, July 25-28, 2010 01-Jul-2010
Fuel Injection Optimization during Engine Quick Start by Means of Cycle-by-Cycle Control Strategy for HEV Application Shui Yu, Yunhai Zhang, Guangyu Dong, Liguang Li SAE 2009-01-2718 01-Nov-2009
Performance and Analysis of Vortex Oxidizer Injection in a Hybrid Rocket Motor Charles Jones, David Myre, James Cowart Conference and Exhibit, Denver, Colora45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Codo, Aug. 2-5, 2009 01-Aug-2009
Lean NOx trap study on a light-duty diesel engine using fast-response emission analysers A J Alimin, S F Benjamin, and C A Roberts International Journal of Engine Research June 1, 2009 vol. 10 no. 3 149-164 01-Apr-2009
Passive Control of Combustion Instability in a Low Emissions Aeroderivative Gas Turbine Tomas Scarinci, Christopher Freeman, Ivor Day GT2004-53767 pp. 487-499 01-Jan-2004
Contribution of Cold and Hot Start Transients In Engine-Out HC Emissions Wayne State Univ. SAE 982645  



Download HFR500.pdf